Deflnition.ˇRadiolaria with simple membrane of the central capsule, which is every where perforated by innumerable very fine pores. Extracapsulum without phaeodium. Skeleton wanting or siliceous. Fundamental form originally spherical.

The legion SPUMELLARIA vel PERIPYLEA, in the extent here defined, was constituted by me in 1883 in my paper on Die Ordnungen der Radiolarien.1  I propose to retain for this legion either the name SPUMELLARIA of Ehrenberg (1875) or PERIPYLEA of Hertwig (1879), although both groups have not quite the same extension. We exclude from the SPUMELLARIA the Spyridina (united with them by Ehrenberg) and include the Collodaria. With the Peripylea of Hertwig we unite his Thalassicollea and Sphaerozoea. To avoid any confusion it would perhaps be better to name this legion "Peripylaria."

The SPUMELLARIA agree with the ACANTHARIA in the structure of the simple capsule-membrane, which is perforated by numerous small pores (but devoid of the large main opening, which the NASSELLARIA and PHAEODARIA possess), whence we unite both the former as Holotrypasta, both the latter as Merotrypasta.

The difference between the two legions of Holotrypasta is determined by the skeleton, which in the SPUMELLARIA is either siliceous or wanting, whilst in the Acantharia it consists of the peculiar organic substance, acanthin.

The legion SPUMELLARIA is by far the largest and most important of the four legions of Radiolaria, as well with respect to the number of different forms, as to the enormous masses of individuals, which we encounter living and fossil. We distinguish in this legion not less than thirty-two different families, three hundred and sixteen genera, and more than seventeen hundred species.

The classification of this large group requires for its better comprehension a careful division into larger and smaller groups. We divide it therefore first of all into two orders, Collodaria and Sphaerellaria, as proposed in the paper mentioned above.2

The Collodaria have no perfect latticed skeleton, and comprise two suborders or sections: in the Colloidea the skeleton is entirely wanting, in the Beloidea it is represented by a variable number of siliceous needles or spicules, scattered in the calymma around the central capsule.

The Sphaerellaria differ from the Collodaria in the possession of a perfect siliceous skeleton, which is originally a latticed spherical shell, enveloping the central capsule. By modification of this fenestrated sphere arises an enormous mass of different forms, which we dispose in twenty-eight families, and these in four larger groups, sub-orders or sections,ˇSphaeroidea, Prunoidea, Discoidea, and Larcoidea.

The Sphaeroidea, the common ancestral group of the Sphaerellaria, possess a skeleton which is either a simple fenestrated sphere, or composed of two or more concentric latticed spheres, which are united by radial beams; more rarely it becomes more or less spongy.

The Prunoidea are derived from the Sphaeroidea by prolongation of the latticed sphere in one axis; the skeleton therefore becomes here ellipsoidal or cylindrical (often with annular transversal constrictions).

The Discoidea on the contrary must be derived from the Sphaeroidea by shortening in one axis; here therefore the fenestrated shell becomes more or less lenticular or iscoidal (often with radial spines or arms in the equatorial plane, on the circular margin).

The Larcoidea, the fourth section, differ from the three foregoing sections by the different growth of the shell in three different dimensions of space; therefore here the fenestrated shell becomes "lentelliptical," or a "triaxial ellipsoid," its length, breadth, and height being different.

The Skeleton consists in all SPUMELLARIA either of pure silica or of a peculiar silicate. The siliceous bars and beams constituting it are invariably solid, as also in the NASSELLARIA, never hollow, as in the PHAEODARIA. Never is the skeleton composed of acanthin, as in all ACANTHARIA. Whilst in the first order of SPUMELLARIA, Collodaria, the form of the spicula, or the scattered needles, composing the skeleton, is very simple, never latticed, in the second order, the Sphaerellaria, it is constantly latticed or fenestrated, often also spongy.

The geometrical fundamental form of the lattice-shell in the Sphaerellaria is originally spherical (homaxon), as preserved in all Sphaeroidea; in the Prunoidea and Discoidea it becomes monaxon, with one single axis (prolonged in the former, shortened in the latter); in the Larcoidea it becomes triaxon, by different growth in three principal axes, perpendicular one to another. The further development of radial parts of the skeleton in these three axes is very important for the "promorphology" of the Radiolaria.

The Malacoma, or the whole soft body of the SPUMELLARIA as opposed to the skeleton, exhibits some differences of structure in two different groups, which were separated formerly (1862) as Monocyttaria and Polycyttaria, corresponding to the "Radiolaria monozoa and polyzoa" of Johannes Müller (1858).

The Monocyttaria (or the Spumellaria solitaria) live isolated as single cellsˇlike  all other Radiolariaˇand are never aggregated in colonies; the calymma includes one single central capsule, and this again one central nucleus, which does not become divided until full maturity.

The Polycyttaria on the contrary (or the Spumellaria socialia) live aggregated in large colonies; the calymma includes a variable number of associated central capsules and each of these commonly one central oil-globule, whilst the original simple nucleus commonly becomes very early divided into numerous small nuclei.

The Nucleus of the SPUMELLARIA is originally constantly central, placed quite in the centre of the concentric capsule, and it retains this central position in all Monocyttaria or solitary Peripylea; whereas in the Polycyttariaˇin consequence of its early divisionˇ its place is commonly taken by a central oil-globule. Whilst the numerous nuclei of the latter are very small, the single nucleus of the former is comparatively large, extremely large (more than a millimeter in diameter) in some gigantic Collodaria.

The Endoplasm or the intracapsular sarcode exhibits in the greater number of SPUMELLARIA a more or less distinct radial striation. It encloses a great variety of different parts; vacuoles, oil-globules, pigment-granules, crystals, &c.

The Membrane of the capsule in all SPUMELLARIA is simple (never double as in the Phaeodaria) and everywhere equally perforated by innumerable small pores; in the thick, double-edged membrane of many large Collodaria these pores appear (in the optical section of the capsule-wall) as distinct fine radial canals, very densely and regularly disposed.

The Central Capsule in the SPUMELLARIA is originally a geometrical sphere, and this simple globular form is preserved in all Sphaeroidea, and in the greatest part of Colloidea and Beloidea. By prolongation of one axis the form becomes ellipsoidal (or even cylindrical) in the Prunoidea, and in some few forms of Colloidea. By shortening of one axis it becomes lenticular (or even discoidal) in the Discoidea, and in some few forms of Colloidea. By unequal growth in three different axes, perpendicular one to another, the capsule becomes lentelliptical in all Larcoidea. Very rarely the capsule assumes in the SPUMELLARIA a polyhedral or irregular (sometimes even amoeboid) form, only in a few Colloidea.

The Calymma, or the jelly-veil including the central capsule, is very voluminous in many SPUMELLARIA of gigantic size, mainly in the large Colloidea, and in all Polycyttaria or social Radiolaria. It includes here a considerable number of large vacuoles or "alveoli." The calymma never exhibits in this legion the dark voluminous phaeodium, possessed by all PHAEODARIA.

Xanthellae or "zooxanthellae" are numerous in the calymma of most SPUMELLARIA, but by no means constant; they are very variable in number and size.

The Matrix, placed between the calymma and central capsule, is, in the majority of the SPUMELLARIA, a rather thick layer of granular exoplasm.

The Pseudopodiaarising from it are very numerous, equally disposed over the whole surface, and are in general rather fluid, exhibiting a considerable tendency to ramify, anastomose, and form networks. The movement of granules is commonly lively. In the Polycyttaria all capsules of one colony or "ccenobium" are connected by the dense variable network of anastomosing pseudopodia.
 
 
synopsis -- Spumellaria


1 Sitzungsb. med-nat. Cesellsch. lena, February 16, 1553.
2Loc. cit.